CUE Project intro page

Hello and welcome to my biochemistry blog for the course BCM441. You may be wondering what exactly we learn in advanced, undergraduate, biochemistry courses. Hopefully my blog is a good example of how integrative and cross-sectional the subject of biochemistry is. The focus of my culminating project has been the affliction, Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS). I have been researching the molecular and cellular basis behind this issue, and its treatments.

PCOS is extremely important to understand, given that it is the most widespread and prevalent issue that faces women’s reproductive lives. The disease is fascinating to me, because it affects 7-15% of women around the world, yet is so little researched. This is not to say that research has not been given to the potential causes, but the major obstacle is that it’s such an integrated syndrome to many other issues. This makes it very hard to pinpoint what exactly causes it. Before going too far into the science, we should first establish what PCOS is.

From its name, we can understand that it is mainly characterized by multiple (from the prefix “poly”) ovarian cysts. What are ovarian cysts? A cyst is a fluid-filled sac, and ovarian cysts in particular are fluid filled sacs on the ovary. They can cause symptoms such as bloating and/or pain in the lower abdomen, in varying degrees of severity. It is important to note that one can develop ovarian cysts without ever developing PCOS. This is because PCOS is defined by multiple criteria, in addition to mulitple cysts. The second most notable diagnostic criteria is the specific amount/types of ovarian cysts, and having hyperandrogenism.

Hyperandrogenism refers to the androgen hormones which both biologically-define men and women contain. A major difference is the ratio of hormones in each body. The androgen hormones are a class of hormone that are in balance with the estrogen class of hormones. A famous androgen hormone is testosterone, which is culturally associated with hypermasculinity. This is a common misconception of hormone balance.

When there are too many androgens in the biologically-female body, the result is not that she somehow morphs into a man. Instead, the result can be PCOS, and it becomes a complex issue to understand and treat. Other characteristics of PCOS include hirsutism (male pattern facial hair on female body), and chronic anovulation (persisting lack of ovulation, resulting in prolonged lack of menstruation). There are two main criteria for diagnosing PCOS and then treating it. The choosing of either diagnostic method does not change how prevalent this issue is, in terms of women’s reproductive health.

Treatment for PCOS, at this point, does not treat hyperandrogenism or the cysts themselves. Instead, it is a case-by-case procedure whereby individual symptoms are treated. Treatments include drugs, lifestyle alterations, and supplementation. The most common drug treatments are combinations of hormonal birth control pills and type-2 diabetes treatments. The hormonal birth control treatment is almost self explanatory, as one could imagine how they are used to offset the hormonal imbalance. The type-2 diabetes drug treatments are a little less intuitive.

Many sources cite the high occurrence of obesity in women with PCOS. The two are not necessarily causative of each other, but the relationship is still not well understood. Generally speaking there is being classified as “overweight”, having insulin resistance (the precursor of diabetes), and having PCOS are commonly seen together. As stated earlier, the main issue facing the exact cause of PCOS is that it is associated with such larger scale issues as insulin signalling and cardiovascular health. Both of these issues affect more than just the reproductive system. One clear link between PCOS and insulin signaling is the usage of insulin-sensitizer drugs to treat the symptoms of the disease – in particular anovulation. A famous insulin sensitizer that is used to treat PCOS is the drug, Metformin. Understanding what it affects at the cellular level has helped us understand a link between insulin signalling and PCOS.

For those who are more holistically inclined, the change in PCOS clinical trials seems to be tending towards different kinds of supplementation. This includes extracts of various herbs and/or plants, and common vitamins or minerals that are part of health-food fads. Sadly I just did not have the time or space to completely divulge into all the holistic treatments out there and the potentially promising or negative-outcome clinical trials, given the sheer amount of studies accessible even at an undergraduate level.

Overall, PCOS is not a syndrome to be taken lightly as it greatly affects many thousands of lives around the world. It is a truly intriguing issue from the biochemical perspective as it ties in a host of metabolic issues and other diseases. Hopefully moving forward, women’s reproductive health will become less taboo and talking about common yet powerful experiences like having ovaries and the issues associated with them will be more commonplace. I hope for a world where we can fully understand such intersectional issues. Please enjoy perusing around my blog and leave comments wherever that I will answer to my best ability!

Collective page of each page of research

All information linked to in this post can also be accessed at the collective page.

Reflection Blog 3

For the purposes of this Capstone project, I have decided to focus on the biochemical basis behind polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). This is one of the most prevalent diseases for women of childbearing age, according to the US Department of Health and Human Services (1). Even though many women across ethnicities and races are diagnosed with it, there is still much to learn about what causes PCOS and how to treat it.

Continue reading Reflection Blog 3

The Influences of Maternal Diet on Amniotic Fluid Metabolites

Featured image caption: This is the fifth figure from the Fotiou et al. article showing speculative pathways of where metabolites identified by NMR in C1 AF samples may fit into overall metabolism.

Described article can be accessed by clicking here.

It is not news that a maternal diet has influence on a fetus’ development. What a mother eats dictates what is available to the fetus, as her uterus is its only environment. While maternal nutrition has long been under the scrutiny of every expecting mother, nutritionist, doctor, and well-meaning stranger, less attention has been paid to the makeup of the amniotic fluid (AF). Instead, all research has focused on morphological development of the fetus. A recent paper published in Nature Scientific Reports by Fotiou et al. details one of the only studies on human AF. The authors make a point to highlight the large research gap that exists in the literature regarding to AF studies in humans. They cite only one other source, to their knowledge, that reports on AF metabolite composition of humans. This other study was performed by Felig et al. and published in 1972, with a focus on the effects of fasting on the AF content of expecting mothers (1). Other AF studies have been published between the Felig et al. paper and the current Fotiou et al. study, but they were done in mouse and pig models. While these animals are good systems for overall vertebrate AF studies, human studies are needed due to the specific nuances behind human fetal development. Continue reading The Influences of Maternal Diet on Amniotic Fluid Metabolites

A new Model for Dietary Influence on Plasma Membranes

Access the described article here:

Plasma membrane (PM) composition is necessary for regulating cell function and cell signaling. Lipids (specifically phospholipids) are the main component of PMs, as taught even at the level of high school biology. Yet characterizations of lipid content, regulation, and overall modulation of PMs are widely unexplored for specific cell/tissue types. Included in this lack of information are the exact mechanistic relationships between environmental (aka dietary) lipids and lipid roles of PMs. A recent study reported in Science Advances by Levental et al. titled, “ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids direct differentiation of the membrane phenotype in mesenchymal stem cells to potentiate osteogenesis” details a preliminary model for the regulation of cell-specific PM phenotypes as the result of environmental lipid regulation.

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Epigenetic bridge between fatty acid β-oxidation and lymphangiogenesis

Published in Nature, “The role of fatty acid β-oxidation in lymphangiogenesis” by Wong et al. crossed biological and chemistry disciplines in producing a new model of genetic regulation between regulatory genes in lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC) development and the fatty acid oxidation of metabolism. Before the publishing of their work there had been no previously established relationship between metabolic regulation and lymphangiogenesis. They established a crucial role of the molecule acetyl CoA (obtained from the FAO pathway) to be used for acetylation on the LEC-differentiation transcription factor, PROX1.

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What IS biochemistry?

In my experience as a undergraduate student majoring in biochemistry I’ve found it a hard to conceptualize for people without a connection to the biological sciences. Upon uttering the phrase “biochemistry major” out loud the most frequent response has been a glazed-over look paired with “Ooooh wow!” promptly followed by something to the effect of, “That sounds complicated, good for you!” The implication is such that I notice many view biochemistry as an inaccessible and intimidating subject.; the hardest part of which is to understand what it is.

Continue reading What IS biochemistry?